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Paul V. Sherlock Center on Disabilities, 600 Mount Pleasant Avenue, Rhode Island College, Providence, RI 02908, 401-456-8072
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4 PBIS Elements: outcomes, data, systems and practices: together these elements support the social competence and academic achievement that accrue when PBIS is implemented with fidelity

Accomplishments binder: a binder that contains all the documents, examples and action plans from your school that defines and support the school-wide PBIS system. Supports system sustainability

Acknowledgment: the specific tangible, (i.e. paws, feathers, bees etc), or intangible, (i.e. attention, praise), reward that is given to a student or groups of students that meet your school's behavioral expectations. Acknowledgments do not, in and of themselves, have an intrinsic value - their value is determined by the ability of students to exchange them for desired tangibles, activities etc

Acknowledgment system: the methods and procedures used to recognize/reward students or groups of students that meet your school's behavioral expectations in a given context. The acknowledgment system should be documented and included in the Team's accomplishment binder

Action Plan: a graphic organizer/planning guide that outlines Team decisions and next steps - should be completed at the conclusion of each Team meeting or, in the case of an Annual Action Plan, completed at the end of a school year to define the goals and objectives for PBIS implementation over the whole of the coming/current school year

Active supervision technique: a technique that promotes behavior management in unstructured settings - referred to as: teach, talk, walk and squawk

Administrative decision/administrative consequence: the response of the administrator to a Major violation of expected behaviors. The possible responses are typically outlined on the Office Discipline Referral, (ODR)

Antecedent: the event or stimulus that precedes a behavior. Antecedents set the stage for, or trigger, a behavior or group of behaviors. There are two types of antecedents: Setting events which are long standing or existing conditions that make a behavior more likely, and Triggers which are closely related in time and occur in the same context as the behavior and which ignite or set off the behavior

Applied Behavior Analysis, (ABA): in theory, ABA is the systematic process of studying and modifying observable behavior through the manipulation of one's environment. In practice, ABA is an intensive, structured teaching program. Routines, behaviors and skills to be taught are broken down to their simplest elements. Individuals are repeatedly presented with a stimulus designed to trigger the desired routine, behavior or skill. Positive reinforcement is used to reward correct responses and behaviors, and incorrect responses are ignored

Appropriate behavior: the behavior that is considered by society or a social group to be most acceptable and desirable in a given situation/context

Asset Inventory: a list of existing supports, interventions, committees and/or services available to students - displayed in tabular form. Asset Inventories help Teams identify redundant, inactive or ineffective supports, interventions, committees and/or services with the goal of making more efficient use of available resources. Asset Inventories promote Working Smarter, Not Harder

Behavior matrix: a tabular presentation of how the School Rules are defined in a given setting, (i.e. look like in a given setting). Can depict all School Rules across all settings, (SW Matrix), or be context specific, (i.e. for the cafeteria only, for the hallway only). Context specific matrices are displayed in the context to which they apply, (i.e. hallway expectations displayed in the hallway). A Home Matrix defines what the School Rules look like in typical home contexts, (i.e. bedtime or family dinner)

Behavior Pathway: a summary of the antecedents, (setting events and triggers), that precede problem behavior and the consequences that follow and maintain problem behavior. The behavior pathway is typically presented in graphic form. Once all elements of the behavior pathway have been identified, a hypothesis regarding the likely function of problem behavior can be proposed

Behavioral context: the specific setting in which behavior occurs. All behavior is context specific

Behavioral expectations: the context specific desired behaviors that describe what the School Rules 'look like' in a given setting , (i.e. what does it look like to be respectful in the classroom). Behavioral expectations are the content of your school's Behavior Matrix

Behavioral fluency: the degree to which an individual has attained mastery of a given behavior or behavioral routine and the degree to which it is appropriate in the context in which it is displayed

Behavioral motivation: the degree to which an individual is driven to perform, or not perform, a behavior or behavioral routine in a specific context. Behavioral motivation will change as one's needs are, or are not, met, (i.e. a person motivated to eat due to hunger will, after consuming a full meal, no longer be motivated to eat)

Behavioral routine: a multi-step chain of behaviors that reliably occur in a predictable order in a specific context and given specific antecedents, (i.e. brushing your teeth or completing a math problem)

Benchmarks of Advanced Tiers, (BAT): the BAT is a structured assessment of the degree to which the 4 PBIS elements that comprise the Secondary System are implemented. The BAT is to be conducted annually

Booster session: a periodic re-teaching of the School Rules and behavioral expectations. It is recommended that Teams schedule booster sessions when SWIS data indicate an increase in ODRs either school-wide or in a specific context. Booster sessions can also be used to introduce new acknowledgments or other changes in the existing school-wide system

Challenging behavior: behavior that: See also: Problem behavior

CI/CO - Check In/Check Out: a secondary level intervention that is implemented when the function of a child's problem behavior is to obtain adult attention. Provides scheduled 'doses' of adult attention throughout the school day - includes ongoing behavior monitoring with an emphasis on meeting the school's behavioral expectations. Similar to Social Contracting but for CI/CO the adult 'mentor' is not the classroom teacher but a designated CI/CO Coach.

Classroom Management Self-Checklist: a self-assessment that measures an adult's current level of skill in implementing the positive supports that contribute to good classroom management. Can be used as a tool to identify training needs

Collaborative Problem Solving, (CPS): The Collaborative Problem Solving model was first described by Ross Greene, Ph.D. The model sets forth two major tenets: first, that social, emotional, and behavioral challenges in kids are best understood as the byproduct of lagging cognitive skills (rather than, for example, as attention-seeking, manipulative, limit-testing, or a sign of poor motivation); and second, that these challenges are best addressed by resolving the problems that are setting the stage for challenging behavior in a collaborative manner (rather than through reward and punishment programs and intensive imposition of adult will). Reducing challenging behavior is accomplished by helping challenging children and their teachers/caretakers learn to resolve disagreements and disputes in a collaborative, mutually satisfactory manner

Competing Behavior Pathway: a graphic representation of the behavior pathway that includes an identified replacement behavior that meets the same function as the problem behavior, the desired or ideal behavior and the consequences that maintain the desired behavior

Compliance: the act of conforming, or yielding to others; conformity; obedience. Different from cooperation in that compliance implies a power differential between the actor and others

Crisis intervention: an intervention with two goals: Data-based decision making: using data to determine the success of an intervention or to identify those individuals, contexts etc. that require additional support, (often in the form of re-teaching/booster sessions), in order to meet behavioral expectations

Desired behavior: the behavior that is considered by society or a social group to be most acceptable and appropriate in a given situation/context. See also: Appropriate behavior

Discipline: teaching to act in accordance with rules; behavior consistent with the accepted rules of conduct; an activity or exercise that develops or improves a skill

Effective Behavior Support Survey (EBS): an annual assessment completed by all the adults in a school. Measures two things: the extent to which school-wide, classroom, non-classroom and individual behavior supports/systems/practices are in place and the degree to which respondents view the importance of that particular support/system/practice. The EBS provides teams with feedback that identifies strengths and areas of need as rated by the adults in the building.

Environmental management: the conscious manipulation of the environment to increase learning and decrease the probability that problem behaviors will occur. Examples include changes to the physical environment such as where desks and dividers are placed, rules that make clear behavior al and academic expectations, temporal arrangements such as schedules and the order in which tasks are completed, and group composition. Synonyms include: structure, antecedent manipulation and proactive management.

Escalating behavior: behavior displayed by an individual that is increasingly out of control and potentially dangerous.

Evidenced based practices: practices whose efficacy is supported by peer reviewed, replicated and experimentally sound research

FACTS: Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Adults. A tool used to identify the function of problem behavior

Family Engagement Checklist, (FEC): a tool used to determine the extent to which practices are in place that encourage family involvement and inclusion in the program or school. The FEC is completed by the adults in the building and can be used as a repeated measure of the impact of practices to increase family involvement.

Fidelity of implementation: a measure of the degree to which interventions are being implemented correctly

Flow chart: a graphic that defines the successive steps to be taken given a specific situation or event. Flow charts are used to define many things including the response of teachers and administrators when students display problem behavior and how to process a referral for additional supports.

"Frequency Fosters Fluency": a phrase which recognizes that repeated exposure is often required for an individual to master skills, content or procedures

Function based interventions: interventions that are designed to decrease problem behavior and increase replacement/appropriate/desired behavior by providing an alternate means for the individual to gain or avoid the attention, tangibles or sensory experience(s), that is/are currently being met by the problem behavior

Functional Behavioral Assessment, (FBA): a process used to identify the likely function of problem behavior. FBAs can be simple, intermediate or complex depending on the degree of confidence that the hypothesized function has been correctly identified. Completing an FBA is the first step to designing an effective Functional Behavior Plan.

Functional Behavior Plan, (FBP): a plan of intervention based on the indentified function of an individual's problem behavior. FBPs are individualized to the person and the context in which the problem behavior occurs. An FBP proscribes interventions at the level of the antecedent, (setting events and triggers) that make the problem behavior less likely, identifies and teaches a replacement behavior that meets the same function as the problem behavior and identifies changes to the maintaining consequences that will encourage the replacement behavior and discourage the problem behavior. An FBP also includes a data plan that identifies the type of data to be collected, defines the criteria for success or plan change and sets one or more dates to review the efficacy of the Plan. Also known as a Behavior Support Plan, (BSP) or Behavior Intervention Plan, (BIP).

Functional efficiency: a measure of both: Functional Perspective: a way of conceptualizing behavior. Generalization: the process of extending a skill learned in one context to other contexts.

Kick off: the official introduction of PBIS and behavioral expectations to the adults and children in a school. Typically occurs with much fanfare and excitement

Lagging skills: in the Collaborative Problem Solving model, lagging skills are skill deficits that function as setting events in the development of problem behavior. Skill deficits can include lack of cognitive flexibility, lack of social awareness and lack of executive skills among others.

Life Space Crisis Intervention, (LSCI): a strength-based approach to conflict resolution that promotes growth and change in children and adolescents. Teaches strategies to use as alternatives to problem behaviors that may lead to crisis situations.

Maintaining consequence: the response to a problem behavior that makes the problem behavior more or less likely to recur.

Majors: problem behaviors defined as serious enough to warrant the completion of an Office Discipline Report and intervention by an administrator. Also known as 'office managed behaviors'

Minors: problem behaviors that are significant enough to warrant a consequence but where the consequence is administered by teachers in the context where the behavior occurs. Also known as 'classroom managed behaviors' or 'faculty/staff managed behaviors'

Modeling: the practice of learning by observing the behavior of others and the consequence to that behavior

Natural reinforcement: the degree to which a reinforcer is related to, or inherent to, the behavior that is reinforced. As a general rule, natural reinforcers are preferred to artificial reinforcers because strengthening the behavior does not rely on the availability of an outside agent.

Non-examples: demonstrations of behavior that model the opposite of the desired behavior.

Office Discipline Referral form, (ODR): the form used to track violations of School Rules. In PBIS schools, the ODR contains all the information to render it compatible with the School-wide Information System, (SWIS). When entered into SWIS, the data from the ODRs is used to generate the reports/graphs/tables that drive data-based decision making.

Operational definition: a written description of a problem behavior. A good operational definition accurately describes what the behavior 'looks like'. It is specific enough that there is reliability between observers as to when the behavior has occurred.

Outcomes: PASS - Preparing and Supporting Self-managers: a secondary level intervention that is implemented when the function of a child's problem behavior is to avoid academics. Provides ongoing adult support focused on building academic skills such as organization, planning, task initiation and homework completion.

PBIS Triangle: a graphic representation of the three levels of prevention that form the PBIS system. Depicts the average percentage of students who are supported at each level. Ideally these percentages are: Plan B: A way of resolving unsolved problems in which the concerns of both the child and the adult are addressed. When used consistently to resolve unsolved problems Plan B facilitates improvement in lagging skills

Precorrections: reminders of behavioral expectations that are given to individuals or groups of children prior to a situation/stimulus that is associated with an increase in problem behavior. Is considered an antecedent intervention.

Primary prevention: the systems and practices that form the Universal level of support. Provides proactive support to all the children in a school by implementing school-wide interventions including directly teaching behavioral expectations and acknowledging children when behavioral expectations are met. The goal of primary prevention is to prevent new cases of problem behavior from developing. When PBIS is implemented with fidelity, at least 80% of the children in a school will be able to meet behavioral expectations without any additional supports.

Problem behavior: behavior that: See also: Challenging behavior

Progress monitoring: the structured, planned practice of assessing the status of an intervention or support. Determines the efficacy of an intervention or support by measuring current status against expected outcomes.

Replacement behavior: an acceptable behavioral alternative to problem behavior that meets the same function as the problem behavior. Replacement behaviors are directly taught and reinforced and should be at least as efficient as the problem behavior at meeting the function currently met by the problem behavior.

RtI: Response to Intervention: a structured system for assessing the academic status of students. The focus is on preventing academic failure by providing appropriate levels of academic support to all, (Universal, school-wide), some, (Secondary group based interventions), or few, (Tertiary, intense individualized supports), students depending on identified need. RtI is sometimes referred to as' PBIS for academics'.

Secondary Implementation Checklist, (SIC): a structured, progressive 'roadmap' to developing and sustaining the Secondary system. Identifies the Critical Features of the Secondary system and provides a step-by-step guide to building and implementing each one.

Secondary prevention: the systems and practices that form the Secondary level of support. Provides proactive support to those children who are not able to meet behavioral expectations given school-wide supports. Secondary supports are targeted group interventions that provide skill development to children based on the function of their problem behavior. The goal of secondary prevention is to decrease the number of current cases of problem behavior. When PBIS is implemented with fidelity, no more than 15% of students will require secondary interventions to meet behavioral expectations.

Self assessment: the process of using self-ratings to determine the following: Self assessment instruments used in PBIS include: School Evaluation Tool, (SET): an annual assessment of the fidelity of School-wide PBIS implementation in your school. Assesses multiple domains and makes recommendations for planning and system sustainability. Typically occurs in the spring.

School Evaluation Tool - Family Version, (SET-F): a variation of the SET, (see above). Assesses the same domains as the SET as well as an assessment of family involvement.

Setting event: part of the behavior pathway. A setting event is an antecedent that is removed in time from the occurrence of the problem behavior. Setting events 'set the stage' for the behavior to occur. Setting events include lagging skills, emotional or behavior disorders, family trauma or stress, program deficits, inappropriate classroom structure, hunger and physical illness. When setting events are effectively addressed, (i.e. academic tutoring, changes to classroom structure or therapy), problem behavior becomes unnecessary.

Social skills instruction: teaching social skills to students who have deficits in their ability to successfully or appropriately interact with other children and adults. Social skills deficits are frequently a setting event for problem behavior. Social skills instruction groups are one of the targeted group interventions on the menu of supports in your secondary system. These groups are appropriate for children where the function of the problem behavior is a lack of social skills.

School Safety Survey, (SSS): one of the standard Sw-PBIS self assessments. The purpose of the School Safety Survey (SSS) is to assess risk factors and response plans for school safety and violence. The survey is designed to help school leaders evaluate
  1. The extent to which the school provides a safe learning environment;
  2. Training and support needs related to school safety and violence prevention; and
  3. Responses to violence and the effectiveness of protective measures.
The School Safety Survey is conducted on an annual basis with a minimum of five staff members. The data is summarized and graphed as two separate scores: risk factors and protective factors.

Summary statement: a written hypothesis of the function of a child's problem behavior. Is typically in the format: When, (antecedent), the student, (behavior), in order to (function). Example: When Bill, who has difficulty with reading, is asked to read aloud, he shouts and throws his book in order to escape the assignment.

School-wide PBIS, (SW-PBIS): refers to the Universal level of PBIS. Provides a common set of supports to promote pro-social behavior by all students. Includes both the school-wide behavioral expectations/school rules and acknowledgment system, and the discipline system used to respond to violations of these behavioral expectations. When PBIS is implemented with fidelity, a minimum of 80% of all students will respond to this universal system, needing no additional supports to meet the behavioral expectations.

SWIS Facilitator: an individual who has received extensive training in the use of SWIS. Individuals completing this training are certified as SWIS trainers who provide on-going support to schools/districts in the use of SWIS and data based decision making.

SWIS readiness: refers to a set of criteria which, when met, document that a school has developed their school-wide system to the point at which they can effectively use SWIS to analyze discipline data. Assessed by the SWI S Readiness Checklist which is completed by the school's designated SWIS Facilitator.

Targeted Team: The school-based team that supports and implements the Secondary System. The Team receives referrals from the Universal Team identifying individual students who are not able to meet behavioral expectations given the universal school-wide supports. The Targeted Team assigns students to a Targeted Group Intervention based on the function of their problem behavior. The Team uses data collected as part of the TGI to track student response. Recommendations are made to continue the TGI, refer the student for Tertiary supports or return the student to the Universal level of support based on these data. The Team also tracks the effectiveness of the school's TGI system to provide the level of support needed for at-risk students to prevent an exacerbation of problem behavior.

Tertiary Implementation Checklist, (TIC): a structured, progressive 'roadmap' to developing and sustaining the Tertiary system. Identifies the Critical Features of the Tertiary system of supports and provides a step-by-step guide to building and implementing each one.

Targeted Group Interventions, (TGIs): a set of evidence-based interventions that are included in the menu of supports for the Secondary system. TGI's are designed to teach students appropriate pro-social ways, based on the school's behavioral expectations, to get their needs met so that problem behavior becomes unnecessary. Assignment to a TGI is driven by the function of the student's problem behavior. The most common TGIs are Check In / Check Out, PASS and social skills instruction.

The Conflict Cycle: by Nicholas Long - a model of conflict which states that the course of a conflict is mediated by the irrational beliefs and self-concepts of the individuals involved. These irrational beliefs/self-concepts impact the individual's interpretation of events which are in turn drive the response of the others involved.

The SWIS Big 5: the standard five SWIS graphs/charts that are used when assessing the impact of the Universal school-wide PBIS system on student behavior. Includes: Average number of referrals per day/per month; referrals by location; referrals by time of day; referrals by student and referrals by behavior. The SWIS Big 5 should be looked at as part of every Universal Team meeting to determine which expectations need to be re-taught in which location and at which time of day, which students may need additional support and the overall impact of the school-wide Universal system in decreasing the number of discipline referrals.

Trigger: the antecedent to problem behavior which immediately precedes the onset of the behavior. Triggers 'set off' problem behavior, typically by demanding the use of a lagging skill.

Universal Implementation Checklist, (UIC ): a structured, progressive 'roadmap' to developing and sustaining the Universal system. Identifies the Critical Features of the Universal system and provides a step-by-step guide to building and implementing each one.

Universal Team: the school-based team that tracks and implements the Universal school-wide PBIS system. The Universal Team defines the school's behavioral expectations, develops and supports the acknowledgment system for both students and staff, develops and supports the discipline system, trains staff in the implementation of the school-wide system, plans teaching and re-teaching the behavioral expectations to students and looks at SWIS data to identify areas of need such as students who require additional support and which behavioral expectations may need to be re-taught and in which context. The Universal Team creates and maintains an Accomplishments Binder in order to support sustainability of the Universal system.

Unsolved problems: within a Collaborative Problem Solving model, unsolved problems are situations that function as triggers for problem behaviors. They demand the use of a skill which the child does not have in his or her repertoire, (lagging skill), which triggers the onset of problem behavior
Questions/Comments contact Mary Anne Pallack | Rhode Island College | ©2016 Sherlock Center on Disabilities

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